عنوان مقاله [English]
Minimal political liberalization or democracy is not the same as maximalist and institutionalized democracy and does not lead to the necessity, consolidation and institutionalization of democracy. Achieving this goal requires favorable conditions and opportunities in the structure of power and sovereignty and political and civil actors. This research is based on an analytical-explanatory research method and a socio-political approach in the framework of structure-agent structural theory and with the aim of analyzing the roots and challenges of political liberalization in Jordan. The process which began with the economic crisis and social movements of the middle classes and the masses in Jordan since 1989, and was stirred by the Arab Spring. While it is unrealistic to overlook some of Jordan's early progress on democracy, it still faces major challenges and shortcomings. The most important research question is, "What have been the major political and social obstacles or challenges facing the political liberalization process in Jordan in the last three decades?" The research hypothesis is that the process of political liberalization in Jordan has led to some changes in the structure of power, political leadership, social movements, and democratic civil and political actors that distinguish the political system from the Persian Gulf monarchies. However, they also face significant structural, and non-structural challenges, shortcomings, and obstacles: weak political will in the rule, elite domination and dominance of traditional-tribal government and actors in the structure of political power, institutionalization of the culture of allegiance among masses , and political and ideological gaps among protesters and social forces and actors.